Botanical Gardens
Botanical Gardens

Botanical Gardens of Academy of Sciences is the oldest of botanical gardens of Uzbekistan, which counts the history of its foundation since 1920. Laying out and building of the Botanical Gardens AN RU in its present territory began in 1950 under the guidance of Academician F.N.Rusanov.
Now the Botanical Gardens functions as a uniform organization jointly with Institute of Flora and Fauna Genofond (Gene Pool). The total area of the Botanical Gardens covers 66 hectares, it is located in the northeast part of Tashkent. The garden tree nursery occupies 40 hectares and consists of dendroflora expositions of East Asia, northern America, Central Asia, the Far East, Europe, Crimea, and Caucasus. Besides, there are planting sites for medicinal herbs, biological, regular, quarantine, experimental-industrial sites, nurseries, and a glass-grown-hothouse complex. The collection of the Botanical Gardens is represented by more than 4500 species, forms, cultures, varieties subvarieties of trees, bushes, semibushes, lianas, grassy and water plants. To provide the urban greening of the city gardening, the Botanical Gardens constantly delivers its new high-decorative kinds and forms of plants intended both for open ground, and for creation of winter gardens and interiors. Familiarizing with the Botanical Gardens begins from the main entrance along the alley leading to the exposition of natural dendroflora, which is presented by variety of rare and valuable woody plants naturally growing on various continents. Here are presented Chinese juniper, Chinese pine, such ancient relic plants as metasequoia, ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), spiral willow, paper-tree, black locust (Gledits(ch)ia - Gleditsia horrida ), under trees there are grown different types of bushes - meadow-sweet or spiraea, deutzia, dogrose varieties, of lianas - Chinese wistaria. The exposition of the Far East is presented by plant species from the Primorski Krai (the Primorie Territory), island Sakhalin, Manchuria. Of trees are especially beautiful heartleaf hornbeam, common maple, Manchurian nut, kalopanax. The sites under crowns of trees are conducive for shrubby (fruticose) and grassy plant species - Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii), types of spindle-wood, acanthopanax, hydrangea and others. There are many lianas. The exposition of Central-Asian dendroflora is rich in wood plants of Uzbekistan. Zerafshan juniper, Oriental persimmon, azarole hawthorn Pontic, European walnut, Mahaleb cherry or rock cherry, various types of barberry (berberis), Tien-Shan birch, galba (Calophyllum), Calophaca is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae and others. Great interest attracts the arboretum with exposition of Caucasian dendroflora with growing Pallas (Crimean) pine (Pinus pallasiana), Caucasian oak, cossack or creeping juniper, wing nut, chestnut oak, Turkish Hazel (Corylus colurna). In the underbrush areas there are grown various types of spindle-wood, common lilac (Syringa vulgaris), dogberry-tree or cornelian cherry, medlar or mediar and different types of mountain ash. This exposition is decorated with lake with a collection of nymphea plants and water lilies. The exposition of North America is presented by such fascinating in their beauty trees as: pecan hickory (Carya pecan), black walnut, cypress (Taxodium distichum), canoewood tree (Liriodendron tulipifera), American arborvitae or white cedar, catalpa, sugar maple and others. On edges and open places, there are grown several types of strawberry shrub or Carolina allspice, arrowwood or snowball or guelder-roses, amorpha or indigobush, cornus. Of lianas there are species of Dutchman's-pipe (Aristolochia), grapes, trumpetbush (Tecoma). In hothouses and tropical orchard-houses there are grown over 800 types, forms and varieties of tropical and subtropical plants from various corners of the Earth. The systematization site provides a glimpse of the variety of types of plant species, and on the biological site, it is possible to familiarize with different vital forms of plants. Here, on the same site, reproduction of the most valuable and unique representatives of arborous-frutescent flora introduced in Uzbekistan is made. Reproduction is made not only by seed sowing and taking a cutting of plants, but also by means of inoculation and grafting. Great attention in work of the Botanical Gardens is attached to the problem of flora protection, especially preservation of types of rare plants and those being under the threat of extinction: tulips, onions, desert-candles (Eremurus), crocuses and others. Qualified guides regularly lead excursions in the Botanical garden. The Botanical Gardens is a museum in the open air, national property and pride of the republic and science of Uzbekistan. 
The central herbarium of Research-and-Production Center "Botany" AN RU also is national property of Republic Uzbekistan, storehouse of unique collections of the world scale collected by works of several generations of scientists. The international conference "Preservation of botanical collections" (St.-Petersburg, 1993) Supported by UNESCO and the International Council of scientific unions, drew attention of world scientific community to immensity and value of botanical collections of Uzbekistan. At this conference, the herbarium of Uzbekistan (the Central herbarium) had been declared a herbarium of the International value. Herbarium collection is the most important source of information, first of all for systematization, floristics, botanical geography, geobotany, and agriculture. Yet it is the document for reference, comparison, reinspection, in other areas of chemical and biological sciences. Gathering of herbarium materials is closely related to flora and plant life studies, as well as investigation of plant resources of Uzbekistan. The central herbarium represents now a large and unique collection (a single one in Central Asia), which should become a "golden" collection of botanical science. It consists of more than one million herbarium sheets covering 172 plant species families. The herbarium consists of 4 sections: 1) Central Asian herbarium of about 100 thousand sheets in volume; 2) General herbarium of about 100 thousand sheets in volume; 3) Typical (authentic) herbarium of about 2000 sheets in volume; and 4) Exchange collection and herborized materials collected for issuing, is presented by 1400 plant species. Here is also kept a unique herbarium of K. Linné (Linnaeus) in photocopies, unique in Central Asia. On the basis of studying the Central herbarium materials the following titles were published: the 6-volume monograph "Flora of Uzbekistan", 10-volume "Identifier of Central Asian plants", "Flora of the Zarafshan river basin", "Identifier of the Hungry Steppe plants", "Identifier of Karakalpakstan plants", "The Red Book of Uzbekistan" etc. In the long term, the establishment of two departments in the Central herbarium is planned: Department of plants introduced in the republic (first of all in botanical gardens). Department of cultural plants (cultivated fruit-and-vegetable, melon-field cultivars, decorative plants, etc.).
The Paleobotanichesky collection includes of more than 6000 samples and is presented by imprints of vegetative organs of almost all types of plants, fossilized wood or petrified wood, spores and pollen. In the collection there is an imprint of androgynous (bisexual) flower of Cycadeoidea (fossil plant genus) (Bennethites), for the first time found in Central Asia from the deposits of Middle Jurassic Period Tashkutan in Hissar, and classified as the genus Willrichia, with a new specific epithet tashkutanica. This unique find testifies to the history of shaping in plants of the first bisexual flower in the territory of Uzbekistan. Fossil wood helped to define the presence of treelike fern (fine-haired fern) - Tempskya with a new species from deposits of Lower-Middle Albian stage, located in the southwest part of the Kulzhuktau mountains (in the Kyzyl Kum region). The find of a treelike fern testifies to presence of damp tropical and laurel-type subtropical forests having grown in the territory of the present-day Kyzyl Kum at the end of the Cretaceous period 105 million years ago; Early Cretaceous Environment characterized by diffused forests, open plains with warm and humid climate. A variety of wood of extinct seed plants was revealed from deposits of the late Cretaceous period in the Kyzyl Kum, classified as cypress, sycamore, false cypress, European redbud species (Judas tree (Cercis Siliquasfrum L.), plane tree, and other species bearing evidence of the development history of angiospermous plant species in flora of Uzbekistan more 90 million years ago.