The Republic of Uzbekistan gained independence in 1991 that was the most important event in life of the country, which opened a new stage in its historical development. In accordance with the 1992 Constitution, with a strong commitment to the provisions and conclusions contained in writings and speeches of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Academician Uzbekistan Islam Karimov, the country wages the course of development on the basis of full-scale consolidation of its sovereignty and qualitative renewal of all spheres of political, economic, social, cultural and spiritual life of the people.
Active role in addressing these and other important tasks is to play the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, established in November 1943. Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan has a long history, the attainments creditable to the Academy include hundreds of major achievements in various fields of science. In scientific institutions of the Academy of Sciences, a large group of prominent scientists is working, whose names are known far beyond the borders of Uzbekistan. Based on the objectives set by the state and the significance of science, Academy of Sciences elaborates most important fundamental and applied programs, innovative projects, and participates in in decision-making on defining and development of priority trends of science, determines organizational and structural issues of its subordinate agencies.
Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan performs the following tasks:
- Pursues basic and applied research in the field of natural, technical, medical, social and human sciences, thereby contributing to the economic, social and spiritual development of society;
- ensures implementation of the state policy in the field of science;
- analyses and examines current problems of development of nature, society and man, development of the relations among nations and national cultures, countries and peoples, education and intellectual and moral values;
- realizes development and practical implementation of new techniques and modern technologies;
- promotes the development of science-intensive industries, exploring the latest advances in science and technology and supports the wide use of them;
- provides training of highly qualified scientific personnel, the necessary conditions for productive creative activities of Uzbek scientists;
- promote effective integration of science, education and industry;
- provides the organization and co-operation with the academies, universities, research institutions, foundations, and other related organizations in foreign countries, as well as with international scientific organizations.
The highest governing body of the Academy of Sciences is the General Assembly, which includes in its membership the full members (Academicians) and Directors of scientific-research institutions of the Uzbek Academy of Sciences. The General Assembly is convened at least once per year. In between the activities of the General Assemblies, the Hayat (Presidium) carries out administration and management of the Academy. The structure of the Hayat consists of the President of the AS RUz, General Scientific Secretary, Vice Presidents as per science directions, and the chairmen of the Regional Departments of the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan. Under the Statute, the candidacy of President of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan is submitted to the General Assembly of the Academy of Sciences on behalf of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the President of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be elected from among the members of the Academy of Sciences on the majority-vote-basis of the General Assembly by open vote.
The Academy of Sciences consists of 28 research institutions and 4 State museums which are organized into three organizational complex according to scientific areas:
physical and mathematical sciences and engineering;
chemical and biological sciences and earth sciences;
social and human sciences; and
two Regional Departments - Karakalpak Departmentand Khorezm Mamun Academy.
Currently, the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan accounts for more than 4793 scientific staff members, including over 2200 scientific workers, 73 Academicians, 281 Doctors and 745 candidates of Science.
To date, Academics and other leading scientists of the Academy of Sciences conduct their activities in various fields of science and education. Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan is actively involved in international cooperation, scientific contacts are established and joint research is conducted with research organizations, scientific societies, institutions and universities of more than 40 countries of the world.
Bilateral agreements on cooperation were concluded with the Royal Society of Great Britain, Russian Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, National Academy of Sciences of Belorussia, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Academy of Scientific Research and Technology of Egypt, and the academies of sciences of other countries. Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan is one of the founders of the International Association of Academies of Sciences (MAAN or IAAS), the membership of which includes the national academies of 15 countries. In order to enhance the scientific and technical cooperation, to introduce in the process the latest technologies created by Uzbek scientists, as well as to realize practical application of research and development projects, the Academy of Sciences established a close cooperation with such well-known foreign firms and companies as "Telecom" (Malaysia), "Sandoz-Agro" ( Switzerland), "Latoksan" (France), "EN Technology Incorporation" (Korea), "Chemotrade GmbH" (Germany) and others. Scientific institutions of AS RUz concluded 26 international agreements on bilateral scientific and scientific-technical cooperation.
On the Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences 70 years Anniversary
In 2013, November, 4 the Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences celebrates 70 years Anniversary of its foundation.
Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences is the largest, reputable and relevant scientific organization in the country. Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences provides the development a wide range of fundamental and applied research, scientific and technical programs being of priority for the Republic, coordination of fundamental research projects, scientific training of young scholars, introduces in practice the findings and created high-tech and innovative technologies, what contributes to the development and improvement of socio-economic, scientific, technological, cultural, spiritual and moral potential.
In order to guide and coordinate the development of over 50 scientific institutions the Committee of Sciences was established in 1932, which in 1940 was transformed into the Uzbek branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and it was the immediate predecessor of the Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences. Further, on 27 September 1943, in wartime, a difficult period for the country, the Resolution of the SNK of the USSR “On Reorganization of the Uzbek branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR into the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR” was adopted. Soon after, on 4 November 1943 the solemn ceremony of establishment and opening of the Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences took place.
The history of the Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences includes two key stages: the period of its foundation, establishment of schools and development of scientific and technical potential covering about 50 years, and the period of dynamic development and promotion of national science to a new level in the years of independence of Uzbekistan. During this period, the academic science embarked on the path of renewal and progress, committed by a number of important decrees of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan and government regulations adopted in the field of science, which helped preserve the scientific potential and solve actual scientific and technical problems of the country development.
A considerable scientific and material and technical potential was created at the Academy of Sciences, as well as the pilot experimental base, and many of the unique research facilities for multiple-discipline investigations. A large think tank of scientists of several generations was formed, reputable schools were shaped in many fields of science: mathematics, astronomy, mechanics, nuclear and radiation physics, electronics, semiconductor and solar materials technology, inorganic, organic and bioorganic chemistry, biology, genetics, bio-ecology, geology, seismology, history, archeology and Oriental studies, theory and history of literature, linguistics and art history.
Radical reorganization of the Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences held during the period of independence of Uzbekistan allowed the Academy of Sciences to form the research trends of priority for the Republic, to switch to the competitive grant-based funding system of Research Institutions projects within the government programs.
Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences consists of 32 Research Institutions (23 Research Institutes, Interdepartmental Research Center SKTB, 4 museums, Karakalpak Branch and Khorezm Ma’mun Academy.
The scientific studies and investigations are carried out by 5218 men of science and research professionals, including 80 Academicians, 370 Doctors and 900 Candidates of Science, 200 applicants for Doctor of Science degree undergo training.
In order to meet the challenges of the country the Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences established new institutions as follows:
- Institute of Genetics and Interdepartmental Centre of Genomics and Bioinformatics aimed at producing transgenic varieties of cotton, wheat, etc. on the basis of genetic engineering;
- Institute of Materials Technology with a Large Solar furnace of 1,000 kW for high temperature production of ultra-pure and high-temperature-resistant materials;
- International Solar Energy Institute, with the assistance of the Asian Development Bank for the purposes of solar energy and alternative energy sources;
- Institute of ion-plasma and laser technologies focused on the creation of new technologies and materials for the needs of domestic production;
- Institute of the Genofond of Flora and Fauna, including the botanical gardens in Tashkent and Karakalpakstan, herbarium, serpentarium, and others;
- Center for High Technology with participation of the University of Cambridge;
- State Museum of Temurids, having a wealth of material of historical and cultural heritage of the era of Amir Temur and his dynasty;
- Museum of the Victims of Repression, its task is to document the commemoration of the victims of repression in difficult periods of domestic history;
- Recreated Khorezm Ma’mun Academy, Regional Branch of the Uzbek Academy of Sciences;
- Upgraded network of seismic stations for seismic diagnostics, operational registration and reporting of data on earthquakes.
The unique Foundation of the Institute of Oriental Studies is continuously appended, it has more than 60 thousand ancient manuscripts, lithographic books and documents; as per the scientific value the Collection of Oriental Manuscripts of the Foundation is among the most numerous in the world; the Collection is included in the UNESCO List.
The scientists of the Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences obtained an array of fundamental scientific findings of universal importance.
- At high-altitude observatory Maidanak having high astroclimatic characteristics, the astronomers discovered a new planet and named it “Samarkand” in honor of the Samarkand astronomical school of Ulugbek.
The theory of nuclear fission was developed, including a three-stage uranium nuclear fission to form magnesium isotopes.
- Through the use of highly concentrated solar radiation the materials were produced with enhanced up to 110 - 150 degrees Kelvin temperature of the transition to the superconductive state.
- The concept of the existence of a new class of semiconductor continuous solid solutions of substitution was substantiated and put forward, as well as the possibility of the formation of new solid solutions by substituting molecules or clusters of the second component.
- A new phenomenon in supra-molecular chemistry was discovered: the dependence of the structure of polymorphic modifications of certain clathrate on the conditions of their formation.
- A dynamic theory of seismic stability of buildings and structures was created, taking into account the regional seismic and structural features.
- The fundamentals of statistical metallogeny, a new trend in geology, were developed.
- A 4-stage geophysical model of earthquake preparation processes was developed and seismic zoning of the territory of Uzbekistan was implemented.
- The publishing house “Springer” (London) English prepared and published in English a unique scientific Reference Book “Naturally Occurring Compounds” in 10 volumes.
- Red Book of Uzbekistan was prepared, published and republished in two volumes (flora and fauna).
Archaeologists made outstanding discoveries of the ancient centers of civilization of the Stone Age on the territory of Uzbekistan and proved that the Central Asian region in the history of humanity is one of the of previously known world centers (Mesopotamia, Babylon, China, etc.).
- Historians reliably identified and analyzed the characteristics of the main historical stages of development of statehood on the territory of Uzbekistan.
- The features of Zoroastrianism and the relationship between Zoroastrianism and agro-pastoralists’ cults of worship in the South-East Ustyurt in the Aral Sea region.
- Linguists made a significant contribution to the development of the Uzbek language and giving it the status of the state language, as well as prepared and published a number of thematic glossaries, including a multivolume Explanatory Dictionary of the Uzbek language.
- Theorists of literature developed historical and contemporary aspects of literary creation and published many-volume editions of collected works of world famous Uzbek writers - Alisher Navoi, Zahiritdin Muhammad Babur, as well as “Rare manuscripts of the Khorezm Ma’mun Academy”, which account of the rich past of the Khorezmian calligraphy, and a number of other works.
- Art historians identified the stages of formation, development and the reasons of evolution of architecture in Maverannahr and Central Asia as a whole, and substantiated the four-stage periodization of formation and development of the artistic culture of ancient Uzbekistan.
Over the past few years more than 6-fold increase was observed in the number of innovative projects carried out by scientific institutions of the Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences, which made it possible to develop a number of effective domestic innovation technologies.
- A unique transgenic cotton variety (early-ripening, salt tolerant, having high yield, and excellent fiber quality) was produced on the basis of gene-knockout technology.
- New technologies were developed for production of high-efficiency fertilizers based on local raw materials, which are widely got accepted in chemical fertilizer industry and are exported in significant quantities.
- Effective nuclear technologies were developed, on the basis of which manufacturing and exporting of a variety of domestic radiation products were established, as well as of radiation-colored natural crystals for the jewelry industry.
- New technologies were developed and more than 30 domestic original drugs produced by the pharmaceutical industry are based on local raw materials.
- Development of high-temperature technologies were developed for producing on the Big Solar Furnace the refractory ceramic and heatproof materials and their products for various industries, including ceramic filter cartridges for fine cleaning of oil and gas industry products.
- A modified electro-erosion method was developed for metalworking treatment of metal products, on its basis of a number of devices were designed for making curly and shaped holes in electro-conductive materials, as well as the original ion-plasma technology was developed for surface cleaning of products (licenses were purchased by Swiss and Japanese companies).
- Jointly with manufacturers the technology was developed to produce high quality aviation fuel “Jet A-1” on the basis of oil and gas condensate and its industrial production is accomplished for refueling aircrafts of Boeing, Airbus, and PG types.
- A number of combined Stirling engines of various capacities - from 0.5 to 5 kW was produced (the license for the production of engines was purchased by the U.S.A.).
- The polymer composition of the chemical agent UzHitAN was developed and was the basis for development of the encapsulation technology and preparation of sowing cotton seeds, which are sown on farms in seven regions of the country.
- Over 35 high-yielding varieties of cotton were selected and introduced in cotton breeding.
- A number of agricultural machines and the cotton-picking machinery, including a modernized harvesting machine of multiple cotton bushes cultivation, which are industrially manufactured and improve the efficiency of harvesting.
- A number of newly developed chemicals manufactured by the industry are intended to strengthen the growth characteristics of agricultural crops, making efficient defoliation prior to machine cotton harvesting, and providing pheromone baiting for pest control of crops, provided the cotton growing industry of the Republic in full.
Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences publishes 20 scientific journals, including 2 international journals: “Applied Solar Energy” and “Chemistry of Natural Compounds”, and a popular science magazine “Science and Life”.
Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences established fruitful creative relationships with UNESCO, IAEA, international organizations IAAS and TWAS, the Academies of Sciences of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and of other CIS countries, China, South Korea, etc. Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences maintains bilateral contacts with a number of leading international research centers and universities.